Biden’s NASA transition team

President-Elect Joe Biden has announced the members of his agency/department transition teams. Some of the members of his NASA transition team are familiar to me, some not.

As to the familiar names, the team lead is Ellen Stofan, currently director of the National Air and Space Museum and formerly NASA chief scientist (2013-2016). Team members include Waleed Abdalati, also a former NASA chief scientist (2011-2012); former astronaut Pam Melroy; David Weaver, an Obama political appointee who headed NASA’s Office of Communications from 2010 to 2016; and Bhavya Lal (whom I know), a research staff member at the IDA Science and Technology Policy Institute.

Names that are new to me are as follows.

Jedidah Isler is an assistant professor of physics and astronomy at Dartmouth College. In addition to her science, Isler, who is Black, says, “I’m also very interested in and active about creating more equitable STEM spaces for scholars of color broadly, and particularly, for women of color.”

Shannon Valley is a postdoctoral fellow with the School of Earth and Atmospheric Sciences at the Georgia Institute of Technology. She has been studying Earth’s climate history through paleoceanographic research According to Georgia Tech, Valley, who is Black, holds a bachelor’s degree in political science and international studies from Northwestern University and “is among the first generation in her family to earn a Ph.D. Fresh from college, Shannon worked on President Barack Obama’s first campaign. For the next five years after Obama’s election, she worked in the Obama Administration briefly at the White House and mostly at NASA Headquarters, serving as a liaison between NASA’s science programs and Congress.” She pursued her doctoral studies while still at NASA.

Dave Noble is executive director of the Michigan office of the American Civil Liberties Union. According to ACLU-Michigan, Noble” has experience building and leading national social justice non-profits and political organizations and affecting change from inside and outside government.  For the past two years, he has been consulting with national progressive groups on strategic planning, coalition building, communications, electoral engagement, and leadership development. Prior to this work, Dave spent eight years in the Obama Administration [as] Deputy Director and Acting Director of the Presidential Personnel Office (PPO), where among other responsibilities he oversaw teams building pipelines of diverse candidates for political appointments and teams creating leadership development programming for all 3500 administration appointees. He also [was] White House Liaison and Deputy Chief of Staff at NASA…. He served on President Obama’s campaign in 2008 as the Director of the LGBT Vote and was deployed to Michigan to help spur voter turnout.”

It’s an interesting team. As someone who’s worked in the aerospace community since 1983 (and who will be 70 years old next year), I am glad to see younger, fresher faces mixed with “Establishment” representatives.

How many endorsements does a space-based near-Earth object survey telescope need?

Last week NASA’s inspector general published an audit of NASA’s planetary science portfolio. This audit shows that NASA’s near-Earth object observations program is not sufficiently funded to meet its congressionally mandated goal of finding near-Earth objects (NEOs) of a size that could pose a risk of impact with Earth.

No kidding.

The 2005 George E. Brown Jr. Near-Earth Object Survey Actstated: ““NASA’s current NEO survey effort focuses on identifying and tracking near-Earth asteroids larger than one kilometer in size. However, it appears that a credible threat is posed by NEOs of a smaller size. The Committee believes that NASA must begin to track asteroids and comets equal to or greater than 100 meters in diameter that pose a threat to the Earth” by 2020. (A NASA NEO science definition subsequently identified objects 140 meters or larger to be the population the survey should look for.)

For years, the NEO science community has stressed the need for a space-based infrared NEO survey telescope to meet the congressional mandate. This advocacy has been focused on the need for a space-based telescope, needed to overcome the limitations of ground-based NEO observations, which are reaching their limits of capability.

Through its Discovery mission competition a few years back, NASA selected a proposal for such a telescope – NEOCAM, the Near-Earth Object Camera – for study. NEOCAM was funded for what NASA calls “phase A” study – preliminary design, as far as I understand. Discovery missions are required to be proposed as science missions.

Last year, NEOCAM evolved into NEOSM, the Near-Earth Object Surveillance mission, no longer just a science mission but a planetary defense mission.

Since 2005, according to the NASA inspector general, “NASA has not provided sufficient resources (i.e., people and funds) to enable the [NEO Observations] Program, which received $60 million in funding in FY 2019, to meet the congressional NEO mandate by 2020.”

The IG report notes: “As early as 2010, the National Academies found that NASA would not meet its congressional mandate due to insufficient resources. Similarly, in a September 2014 report, we [that is, NASA’s Office of Inspector General] found that the NEOO Program lacked a plan, adequate funding, and staffing to address the congressional mandate. In response to our recommendations, in January 2016, NASA reorganized and established PDCO to oversee the NEOO Program but has not increased funding for the effort. PDCO sponsors observation projects that use a variety of NASA, National Science Foundation, and U.S. Air Force supported ground- and space-based telescopes to search for NEOs, determine their orbits, and measure their physical characteristics. The ground-based telescopes include such facilities as the Arecibo Observatory, Asteroid Terrestrial-Impact Last Alert System (ATLAS), Catalina Sky Survey, Goldstone, Infrared Telescope Facility, and the Panoramic Survey Telescope and Rapid Response System. Additionally, the aging NEOWISE space-based infrared asset assists NASA’s efforts to identify and characterize the population of NEOs in a way not possible from the ground.”

In 2018, at NASA’s request, the National Academies’ Space Studies Board established a Committee on Near Earth Object Observations in the Infrared and Visible Wavelengths to make recommendations about space-based telescope capabilities. As the IG report notes, “The Committee’s 2019 report reiterated that NASA would not accomplish the congressional mandate by 2020 with its currently available assets of ground-based telescopes and a single, soon-to-expire space-based asset [NEOWISE]. According to the Committee, due to the Earth’s atmosphere blocking infrared wavelengths, ground-based assets could not provide the NEOs diameter measurement and mass estimate with the same accuracy as an infrared space-based telescope. The Committee also noted that although Congress tasked NASA with NEO detection and threat characterization, it failed to provide sufficient funding to enable NASA to adequately address this task. The Committee further suggested that if NASA were to deploy a space-based infrared telescope, the congressional mandate may be accomplished within 10 years of launch.”

For years, NASA’s Small Bodies Assessment Group (SBAG) has endorsed the need for a space-based infrared NEO survey telescope. In 2019, NASA’s Associate Administrator for Space Science, Thomas Zurbuchen, acknowledged to the NASA Advisory Council’s Planetary Science Advisory Committee that NASA needs to proceed with NEOSM. As Marcia Smith reported on Space Policy Online, “Zurbuchen attributed his change of heart to a recognition that there is more than science involved, and many voices need to be heard and consensus reached.”

Back to the IG’s 2020 report.

“According to a Planetary Defense Program official, the congressional mandate could be achieved roughly 10 years after an infrared space-based telescope known as the Near-Earth Object Surveillance Mission (NEOSM) begins flight operations. The official estimated that it would cost between $500 million and $600 million to develop NEOSM, and if the Planetary Defense Program budget were increased to about $200 million per year, NEOSM could be developed and ready for launch in roughly 4 years. This would allow NEOSM to launch by early 2026, and after collecting the necessary data, achieve the congressional mandate by 2036. However, while the FY 2020 appropriations bill provided the Planetary Defense Program with $35.6 million to start development of NEOSM, the President’s FY 2021 budget request shows a budget reduction for the Program after DART is scheduled to launch in 2022. Specifically, the Program budget will decrease from $150 million in FY 2020 to less than $100 million in FYs 2023 through 2025. At that funding level, NEOSM would likely not launch until several years after the current 5-year budget plan, perhaps as late as 2030. A 2030 launch plus 10 years for data collection and cataloguing would mean that the expected completion date of the mandate would realistically be 2040 at the earliest—at least 20 years past the original goal of 2020.”

What is wrong with this picture? Who’s blocking the way? White House Office of Management and Budget? Congressional appropriators? NASA budget managers? I don’t know.

I’ve reviewed one white paper advocating for NEOSM, submitted to the National Academies’ Decadal Survey on Planetary Science and Astrobiology, 2023-2022, now in the early stages of formulation. I’d guess there might be more than one.

At the 2019 Planetary Defense Conference in College Park, Maryland (which I attended), NASA Administrator Jim Bridenstine, in a keynote speech, endorsed the need for a space-based infrared NEO survey telescope, which at that point was still called NEOCAM – a science mission – and later that year evolved into NEOSM, a planetary defense mission. 

So, we have the National Academies of Sciences (specifically, the Space Studies Board), the NASA Small Bodies Assessment Group, and the NASA administrator himself, not to mention many individuals in the small-bodies community, advocating for the need for a space-based NEO survey telescope. So what’s the hold-up? IMO, it appears to be about an additional $50 million a year, which NASA’s planetary defense program does not yet have.

Extending human presence into space: who will benefit?



On July 8, I tuned in to an online briefing on space settlement offered by the Beyond Earth Institute, a self-described “think tank for policymakers” offering “recommendations to Accelerate the establishment of communities in space.” The Beyond Earth (BE) “team” consists of six white men and one white woman. There is no information on the BE web site about funding sources. Sometimes I wonder whether I should keep drawing attention to such advocacy efforts. But then again, this outfit claims to be offering recommendations to the government. I realize that recommendations can be made and not heard, but what I worry about is that this outfit’s recommendations are being heard. So, here goes.

BE team member Steve Wolfe helped to write the 1988 Space Settlement Act. He said at the briefing that in 1988 it was “interesting” to consider space settlements, but now it’s “imperative.” He noted that Elon Musk wants to bring “all Earth life” to other planets.

My own observations are that 1) Earth life has evolved to live on Earth; 2) as far as I can tell, Musk plans to take people into space who can pay him; and 3) what is imperative is that we do everything we can to keep Earth livable for the vast majority of humans who cannot afford to, or otherwise don’t want to, live in space.

BE team member Tom Marotta, an analyst with the Federal Aviation Administration’s Office of Commercial Space Transportation, reported on BE’s policy recommendations, which he described as “data-driven, non-partisan,” and based on interviews with seven space policy “thought leaders. ” I’m familiar with the thinking of all seven. They are all like-minded: pro-settlement, pro-space mining, pro-corporate, neoliberal/libertarian.

Here’s a brief summary of BE’s pro-settlement policy recommendations:

  1. The U.S. must revamp arms control/export-control regimes. (My view on this point: this step is to free up corporations to do what they want to do, with whomever they want to do it with, unhindered).
  2. The international space community should establish voluntary guidelines for behavior in space. Don’t wait for governments to do it. (My view on this point: Governments are a big part of the international community….). Let industry self-regulate. (My view: Yeah, like that’s gonna work.)
  3. The U.S. should establish a whole-of-government agreement on establishing communities in space. (My view: Really? The entire U.S. government should be working on this goal, which is not supported by taxpayers?)

Mike Gold, currently head of NASA’s Office of Interagency and International Affairs, discussed NASA’s so-called “Artemis accords” at the briefing – which he described as “principles for a safe, peaceful and prosperous future” in space. (I have a question: prosperous for whom?) “We” think the 1967 United Nations Outer Space Treaty (OST) is the right way to go in establishing policy: no requirements, no regulations, just principles. (Interesting characterization of the OST….)

Laura Montgomery, former general counsel with the FAA’s Office of Commercial Space Transportation, said the Artemis accords need tweaking. “From a business perspective,” full transparency and sharing of data, as called for in the accords, “might have to be limited.” Interoperability should not be required for the private sector. She said the U.S. government should not mandate standards for the private sector – let’s not tie industry’s hands. She also said the Artemis accords’ recognition of rights to space resource extraction “is a gem,” noting that a 2015 U.S. law recognizes U.S. rights to extraterrestrial resources. (My note: So, the principle here is those who get there first get the most.)

Montgomery said the Artemis accords are in harmony with the Outer Space Treaty. Article II of the treaty prohibits national appropriation of space resources but is silent on corporate appropriation. Thus, commercial extraterrestrial property ownership is okay according to Article II, she said. The Artemis accords are the first step toward commercial property rights in space. She noted that if nations establish a practice over time, it can become customary international law.

Pete Worden, executive director of the Breakthrough Foundation, said at the briefing, “There’s a rather significant pent-up enthusiasm” for the next step in space exploration: space mining.  (My observation: I am not feeling any pent-up enthusiasm for space mining.) He’s a consultant to the Duchy of Luxembourg on space mining, and he said Luxembourg is already working with China and Russia on space mining. “Informal protocols” for operations in space could be valuable to private-sector entities.

Gold said, “I’m in violent agreement” with Montgomery and Worden. Very few nations would object to private-sector space resource extraction, “I hope… Precedent’s important…. It’s important that we lead by example…. We have a soft-power influence…if we stick to our values [and] the rule of law.”

In June 2019, the National Space Society held a policy forum on space settlement, chaired by Steve Wolfe. According to the website for this forum, “The settlement of space is closer than many believe; therefore, it is not too early to have a sober discussion about policies that could support and possibly stimulate space settlement development.”

I have been listening to advocates for space settlement since 1983. I don’t think it’s a good idea, I don’t think it will happen in the foreseeable future, and I don’t think it will benefit the vast majority of humanity left here on Earth. Advocates tend to talk about extending human society or human civilization into space – but human society, human civilization, are not monolithic entities. Earth hosts a multitude of human societies, civilizations, that are not like-minded, that do not share the same values and morals. As I’ve said many times before, advocacy for space settlement is very Western-centric.

As to commercial development of space, I also have been listening to advocates since 1983. I will note that in congressional testimony in 2018, NASA’s inspector general observed, “NASA’s current plan to privatize the [International Space Station] remains a controversial and highly debatable proposition, particularly with regard to the feasibility of fostering increased commercial activity in low Earth orbit. Specifically, it is questionable whether a sufficient business case exists under which private companies can create a self-sustaining and profit-making business independent of significant Government funding.”

Emphasis added. If NASA has not been able to succeed in “commercializing” the ISS, why should we believe that NASA – or any other entity in the U.S. government – can, or should, “commercialize” outer space? Profitable space companies – Boeing, Lockheed Martin, SpaceX, etc. – have built their businesses on government subsidies and government contracts. Even Jeff Bezos – supposedly now the richest person in the world – is building his space company Blue Origin with government contracts. From where I stand, what’s going on in the space arena is more like business as usual than “a new era.”

Back to the Moon and on to Mars? Still unaffordable



Last week the Trump administration issued a “new” strategy for sending people back to the Moon – “to stay” – and on to Mars, promoting the commercial development and exploitation (my word, not theirs – their word is “development”) of space and its resources, etc. etc.

I’ve been following similar declarations out of successive administrations since 1983, when Reagan was president. From 1985-1986, I worked on the staff of the National Commission on Space, charged by Congress to develop a plan for the next 25 years of space exploration (we did 50). The commission produced a grand plan for “pioneering the space frontier,” including a “rationale for exploring and settling the solar system.” The “vision” put forth was this: “The Solar System is our extended home. Five centuries after Columbus opened access to ‘the New World’ we can initiate the settlement of worlds beyond our planet of birth. The promise of virgin lands and the opportunity to live in freedom brought out ancestors to the shores of North America. Now space technology has freed humankind to move outward from Earth as a species destined to expand to other worlds.”

That “vision” – like its successors – is laden with religious and mystical belief – not to mention a skewed version of history. Columbus and his ilk may have opened access to North America for European explorers, exploiters, and colonists. But this “new world” was already home to many indigenous civilizations, most of which were trashed by the European invaders. Destiny, and manifest destiny, are Christian beliefs. (See my March 27, 2015, blog post about it.) The idea that humans are destined to populate the solar system is rooted in the mystical philosophy of Russian cosmism.

That vision was not funded.

In a 1989 speech, President George H.W. Bush called for a Space Exploration Initiative (SEI) that would  “follow an evolutionary pathway over a 30-year horizon beginning with Space Station Freedom in the 1990s, followed by a permanent outpost on the Moon at the beginning of the next century, andculminating with Mars expeditions that lead to a permanent martian outpost.”

Though the Moon-Mars Thing was not funded, we do have the International Space Station. NASA has invested at least $100 billion in the ISS. In addition, NASA’s inspector general testified to a congressional committee in 2018 that the ISS costs NASA $3 billion-$4 billion a year to use.

In his NASA history monograph, “Humans to Mars; 50 Years of Mission Planning, 1950-2000,” David Portree writes of NASA planning for the Space Exploration Initiative:

The initial cost of a permanent Moon base using Approach A and including the 55 percent  ‘cushion’ would be $100 billion in constant 1991 dollars between 1991 and 2001. The Mars expedition would cost an additional $158 billion between 1991 and 2016 based on the same stipulations. Thus, achieving the letter of Bush’s speech—a return to the Moon to stay and a mission to Mars— would cost a total of $258 billion, of which 55 percent ($141 billion) was cushion.

Continuing operations would, of course, add to SEI’s cost. In Approach A, operating the lunar base from 2001 to 2025 would cost $208 billion, while operating a Mars outpost from 2017 to 2025 would cost $75 billion. Thus the SEI program cost for Approach A for 34 years, from 1991 to 2025, including operations and a 55 percent cushion, would come to $541 billion.

The cost summary had NASA’s annual budget climbing from about $13 billion in 1990 to about $35 billion in 2007 for Approach A. At its peak, about half would be allotted to Moon and Mars programs, meaning that the average annual cost for Moon and Mars would be about $15 billion per year.”

You can see why the SEI was not funded.

In 2004, President George W. Bush unveiled his “vision for space exploration.” Part of his plan was “to develop and test a new spacecraft, the Crew Exploration Vehicle, by 2008, and to conduct the first manned mission no later than 2014.” This plan called for a “return to the moon by 2020, as the launching point for missions beyond…. Using the Crew Exploration Vehicle, we will undertake extended human missions to the moon as early as 2015, with the goal of living and working there for increasingly extended periods…. With the experience and knowledge gained on the moon, we will then be ready to take the next steps of space exploration: human missions to Mars and to worlds beyond.”

George W. Bush’s Crew Exploration Vehicle evolved (sort of) into the Orion crewed capsule. In a report issued last year, the Government Accountability Office said the development cost of Orion was $6.8 billion, while the development cost of the Space Launch System, the rocket required to take the Orion capsule into space, was $7.2 billion. Costs continue to climb….

In 2016, President Barack Obama wrote, for CNN, “We have set a clear goal vital to the next chapter of America’s story in space: sending humans to Mars by the 2030s and returning them safely to Earth, with the ultimate ambition to one day remain there for an extended time.”

So, back to the Trump administration’s Moon-Mars plan…. Can we afford it? I say no.

Human exploration does not serve the public interest. It serves political and business interests. The Trump administration’s “strategy” says as much: “Geopolitical interests and objectives provide the historic model and rationale for practically all U.S. human spaceflight missions…. Those interests include security, commerce, science, and international leadership.”

The U.S. is continuing on its path of spending more money on space exploration – in particular, human exploration – than, likely, all other space-faring nations combined. This is not what I’d call sustainable. The U.S. economy, U.S. society, will not miraculously recover from the pandemic and all the other serious problems plaguing our nation (no need to list them here, you know what they are) in a year or two. We will have so much rebuilding to do – not to mention the near-term costs of dealing with the pandemic – and the human exploration of space contributes nothing to that enterprise, except perhaps employment (though likely not for all those displaced hotel and restaurant industry workers). When the Pew Research Center surveyed public opinion in 2018 on what NASA’s priorities should be, respondents ranked sending people back to the Moon and on to Mars at the bottom of the list. The Trump administration does not seem to care about public opinion.

Government accountability: NASA


Some parts (likely most parts) of government continue to work well – for example, the Government Accountability Office (GAO). GAO has published its 12thannual “quick look”(which is darned thorough) at the status of NASA’s major projects.

According to the report, NASA “is planning to invest at least $65 billion over the life cycle of its current portfolio of 25 major projects, which we define as those projects or programs that have a life cycle cost of over $250 million.” GAO has been doing these annual reports since 2009, at the direction of Congress, “to assess the cost and schedule performance, technology maturity and design stability” of these projects.

NASA’s most expensive projects are, on the science side, the James Webb Space Telescope (JWST), and, on the human space flight side, the Space Launch System/Orion projects. The latter are critical elements of NASA’s plan to send people back to the Moon by 2024 – a goal I believe to be unachievable, and also of little to no public value.

GAO notes, “Prior to being approved for development, cost estimates for JWST ranged from $1 billion to $3.5 billion, with expected launch dates ranging from 2007 to 2011…. Now estimated at $9.7 billion, the project’s costs have increased by 95 percent” – 95 percent! – “and its launch date has been delayed by over 6.5 years since its cost and schedule baselines were [re]established in 2009.”

NASA itself says it has only a 12 percent chance of meeting its current planned JWST launch date of March 2021.

The next big NASA planetary science mission up for launch is Mars 2020. GAO reports, “The Mars 2020 project has encountered development cost growth of almost $360 million, which exceeds the 15 percent congressional notification threshold at a critical point in the development process when problems are most commonly found and schedules tend to slip. This cost growth was due to multiple development difficulties, delayed deliveries, and higher than anticipated procurement costs.” The cost of formulation, development, and operation of Mars 2020 appears to be close to $3 billion.

Meanwhile, NASA and the European Space Agency are proceeding with plans for a joint Mars sample return mission, with dual launches proposed for 2026. I can’t find any information from either agency right now about cost estimates for this mission, but certainly it will be a multi-billion-dollar endeavor.

This mission is designed to collect samples from the martian surface that will have been cached – if all goes well – by the Mars 2020 rover. It will be extremely complex – I’ve read the phase-2 report of the International Mars Architecture for the Return of Samples (MARS) Working Group, published in the journal Astrobiology in April 2018. The plan outlined in this report looks solid – but, again, it’s extremely complex. Hence, expensive.

The reason why a Mars sample return mission has been a top priority and, thus far, mission impossible since the late 1970s is that, while the space community has known how to do it, it has not known how to do it affordably. I expect that the current NASA-ESA mission plan will end up costing more and taking longer than the agencies now anticipate.

See my report on cost and schedule escalation for NASA’s Viking mission to Mars – while the mission was completed, and was successful, management and budget problems plagued the project from Day One and the duration.

Over the next year, nations around the world will need to start rebuilding their economies. In the U.S., where I live, I believe the government should create something akin to President Franklin D. Roosevelt’s Works Progress Administration, putting people back to work to rebuild our crumbling infrastructure and reinforce our public-health system. The WPA was only one of FDR’s New Deal programs, which revived the U.S. economy, created jobs, and provided security to citizens. We’ll need to do it again.

Don’t get me wrong. I love space science and believe it’s important for us to continuing exploring space. But right now, I don’t think space exploration advocates should be lobbying for more money for space exploration. And definitely not with humans. Human exploration is too expensive. And what’s the point?

Finally, I want to note that Cristina Chaplain, GAO’s director of contracting and national security acquisitions, is retiring. Chaplain has led the team that has been producing GAO’s excellent reports on NASA activities. She and her team have been doing a great job, and her retirement will be a loss for government accountability. I wish her successors the best of luck.

Reliable sources/fact-checking

2fupudCredit: imgflip

We’re all consuming more information than usual online, not just about COVID-19 but about pretty much everything. (Right?)

So, I’m doing a post about reliable sources of information.

First, the most reliable sources of information about COVID-19 that I’m paying attention to are as follows.

Scienceand Naturemagazines – I subscribe to both (and subscriptions aren’t cheap). I don’t know how much of the information that these magazines offer is behind a paywall, but check them out. They are keeping up to date on the latest scientific information about COVID-19.

I have found the New York Times, Washington Post, and for state and local news my local newspaper the Sarasota (FL) Herald-Tribune, to be reliable sources of information about COVID-19 as well. If you don’t subscribe to your local newspaper, do it now. They need your support. Many news sources online have removed their paywalls, in full or in part, during the current crisis. (I subscribe to the Sunday Times, which gives me full access to the Times online, and the digital Post, plus home delivery of my local paper.)

Just FYI, in case you think that the mass media are liberally biased, there is no evidence to support this assertion, in particular when it comes to politics. A paper published in the peer-reviewed journal Science Advancesthis month – Hans H.G. Hassell et al, “There is no liberal media bias in which news stories political journalists choose to cover” – reports: “Using a unique combination of alarge-scale survey of political journalists, data from journalists’ Twitter networks, electionreturns, a large-scale correspondence experiment, and a conjoint survey experiment, we showdefinitively that the media exhibits no bias against conservatives (or liberals for that matter) inwhat news that they choose to cover. This shows that journalists’ individual ideologicalleanings have unexpectedly little effect on the vitally important, but, up to this point,unexplored, early stage of political news generation.”

Here are other reliable sources of information about science, in general, that I’ve consulted over the years: the Center for Science in the Public Interest (CSPI), the Union of Concerned Scientists (UCS); and the American Geophysical Union (AGU)– AGU in particular has been doing a great job of staying on top of the science of climate change . I’m sure there are many more reliable sources of information about science, but these are sources with which I’m familiar.

For reliable information about corporate public relations campaigns, try Sourcewatch, which provide[s] well-documented information about corporate public relations (PR) campaigns, including corporate front groups, people who ‘front’ corporate campaigns, and PR operations.” SourceWatch is published by the Center for Media and Democracy (CMD), an organization that is funded by foundation grants from foundations ranging from the Ford and Rockefeller Family Foundations to George Soros’s Open Society Institute.

For political fact-checking, try Politifact— “a nonpartisan fact-checking website to sort out the truth in American politics. PolitiFact was created by the Tampa Bay (FL) Timesin 2007. In 2018, PolitiFact was acquired by the Poynter Institute, a nonprofit school for journalists.

Another reliable source of political fact-checking is Fact Check. Fact Check is transparent about its funding sources. It says: “Prior to fiscal 2010, we were supported entirely by three sources: funds from the APPC’s own resources (specifically an endowment created in 1993 by the Annenberg Foundation at the direction of the late Walter Annenberg, and a 1995 grant by the Annenberg Foundation to fund APPC’s Washington, D.C., base); additional funds from the Annenberg Foundation; and grants from the Flora Family Foundation. In 2010, we began accepting donations from individual members of the public for the first time, responding to many unsolicited offers of support from our subscribers. We launched our first public appeal for donations in April 2010.”

The APPC is the Annenberg Public Policy Center, which operates out of the Annenberg School for Communication at the University of Pennsylvania. Both the center and the school have excellent reputations. The APPC was established in 1993 by former ambassadors Walter and Leonore Annenberg. Its ongoing funding comes from an endowment established for it at that time by the Annenberg Foundation.


Another site I often find useful is Media Bias/Fact Check. According to this outfit, Funding for Media Bias Fact Check comes from donations and third party advertising. We use third party advertising to prevent influence and bias as we do not select the ads you see displayed. Ads are generated based on your search history, cookies and the content of the current web page you are viewing. This sometimes leads to politically biased ads as well as promotion of pseudoscience products that we do not endorse.”

I do not trust any sources online that do not name members of staff and do not divulge funding sources. That’s my rule of thumb.  (I’ve noticed that a lot of organizations with the words “liberty” or “freedom” in their names are promoting libertarian ideology.) And even some corporate front groups that do provide some information about staff and funding are suspect.

Take, for example, the Center for Consumer Freedom, which it says is supported by  “restaurants, food companies and thousands of individual consumers.” (Exactly who?) The Center’s executive director is Rick Berman, who is president of the Washington, DC-based public affairs firm Berman and Company. Herman and Co. says it “specializes in research, communications, and creative advertising.”

Creative, indeed….

One recent campaign launched by the Center for Consumer Freedom – a.k.a. Rick Berman – was an attempt to convey the idea that plant-based meat substitutes are bad for your health. I was alerted to this campaign by an article in the health section of my local newspaper, which turned out to be a truncated version of a story that had been published by the New York Times. The Times story included information about the Center for Consumer Freedom and its backing by the meat industry. My local paper edited out that part of the story. I wrote a letter to the editor of my paper, saying, “check your sources” – my letter was published.

Here’s what SourceWatch has to say about Berman: he’s “ a former labor management attorney and restaurant industry executive who, with his firm Berman & Co., currently works as a Washington, D.C. lobbyist for the food, alcoholic beverage, tobacco industries and, more recently, other industries. Berman & Co. has lobbied for companies such as Cracker Barrel, Hooters, International House of Pancakes, Olive GardenOutback SteakhouseRed Lobster, Steak & Ale, TGI Friday’s, Uno’s Restaurants, and Wendy’s.

Berman has earned the nicknames “Dr. Evil,” the “Conservatives’ Weapon of Mass Destruction” and the “Astroturf Kingpin” for his repeated use of the strategy of forming dozens of non-profit front groups, attack-dog web sites, and alleged think tanks that defend his corporate clients’ interests by attacking their critics, allowing his paying clients to remain out of public view.

So, friends, check your facts – please?

And as everyone’s saying these days – stay safe!

Space science (still) at work


Dear readers, you know that while I am a long-time consultant to NASA science programs, I’m not in the habit of cheerleading for NASA. But today, I want to praise my two NASA teams – astrobiology and planetary defense – for keeping their programs moving along as best they can, managing grants and staying in touch with their grantees. I’m sure that many other NASA program managers are doing the same, but I’ll talk about the ones I know.

I am so impressed with how my NASA colleagues have adapted to working from home. The science community writ large has been working with virtual meeting and communication tools for some time, so we may be better equipped than other communities to adapt to the current environment.

For the astrobiology program, the NASA Astrobiology Institute (NAI)– established in 1998 and “sunsetted” in 2018 – was established as a virtual research institute – an innovative concept some 20 years ago. The NAI enabled many members of the astrobiology community to become familiar with virtual meeting and collaboration tools long before they came into common use. In addition, the astrobiology community has a vibrant early-career component, members of which are knowledgeable about working with online collaboration tools. So we’re good to go.

NASA’s Office of Communications has created a resource for engaging people stuck at home – especially those with children. It’s called NASA @ Home and offers videos, podcasts, and other activities for families with children.

My planetary-defense colleague Kelly Fast made a video for NASA @ Home at her home in Maryland to explain, “What do we mean when we say an asteroid is making a close approach to Earth?” (We had a close approach of an asteroid designated 2020 GH2 on April 15 – 223,000 miles from Earth.) The short answer is: for asteroid observers, “close” could range from tens of thousands to millions of miles. She puts things into proper perspective, visually.

On Tuesday April 14, my astrobiology colleague Mike Toillion, along with colleagues Graham Lau and Sanjoy Som, was able to stage another episode of the online seminar series “Ask an Astrobiologist” with University of Arizona astrobiologist Betul Kacar. It’s excellent! I recommend it. Betul is a colleague and a friend, and I am in awe of her accomplishments. She is featured on UN Women: Europe and Central Asia, explaining her path from Turkey to the U.S.This episode came just two weeks after the last one, with Colin Goldblatt (also very interesting). On April 16 on YouTube, Mike premiered a video he produced about our colleague Aaron Gronstal, who is the artist (and also a Ph.D. scientist) who has been producing a series of astrobiology graphic histories.

The activities I’ve mentioned may not seem critical, but they are part of an overall effort to keep science programs moving, and scientists at work. Scientists are doing the best they can to keep working. The NASA program managers I work with are doing their best to keep funding flowing, convert grant proposal reviews from in-person to virtual, move mission planning along, and so on. Most big science conferences have been postponed or cancelled. NASA’s Science Mission Directorate posted its latest FAQs on grants and research during the COVID-19 pandemic on April 8, following guidance from the White House Office of Management and Budget.

I have been working remotely with my NASA colleagues in Washington, D.C., and elsewhere, since I moved to Sarasota, Florida, in 2017. So the current situation is not especially disruptive for me. I live in a beautiful park-like community where I walk every morning – six feet from my neighbors – watch mockingbirds, great blue herons, many other beautiful birds – and I have my own solar-heated pool. So my life is good. I’m one of the lucky ones. Stay safe!

Who’s doing what in planetary defense: another update



I’ve written here before about the B612 Foundation’s tendency to, rhetorically, take credit for the work of others. They’re still at it, so I’m writing again.

In the B612 Foundation’s 2019 annual progress report on its Asteroid Institute program, B612 president Danica Remy writes: “Perhaps one of the things I am most excited to see is the growth of capability in the field we occupy.” This is interesting wording.

I assume that what she means by “the field we occupy” is planetary defense. Neither B612 nor its Asteroid Institute is engaged in the working of finding, tracking, and characterizing asteroids, predicting their orbital paths, and developing missions to demonstrate asteroid deflection techniques, as far as I can tell. NASA’s planetary defense program, including its near-Earth object observations program, currently funds more than 90 percent of the work being done in this field. (Full disclosure: I am a part-time consultant to the NASA program, and no one asked me to write this post. It’s just that I find B612’s rhetorical style irksome.)

Remy writes: “Last summer with asteroid 2018 LA, we saw our planet’s asteroid tracking and early warning system work together. Because of new alert systems in place, astronomers were able to assess the object shortly after discovery and determine its trajectory (it exploded over Botswana).” Those tracking/early warning/alert systems are funded primarily by NASA’s planetary defense program.

2018 LA, a small asteroid 9–12 feet (2.6-3.8 meters) in size, was detected by the Mount Lemmon Survey – funded by NASA — eight hours before it exploded in the atmosphere. Observations were reported to the Minor Planet Center – also funded by NASA – and thus shared with other observers. Impact occurred over Botswana. Following eyewitness reports of the impact, the Asteroid Terrestrial-Impact Last Alert System (ATLAS) – funded by NASA – released observations that confirmed the asteroid had impacted Earth’s atmosphere over Botswana. As far as I can tell, neither B612 nor the Asteroid Institute played a part in these observations.

Remy writes, “this summer [2019], another asteroid, asteroid 2019 OK, whizzed past Earth, having been detected only earlier that week, which surprised all of us as to its size and close proximity to our home planet. While our systems are improving, we still see an imperative for an increase in discovery rates. This will be possible only through increases in funding for technologies to find and track asteroids.”

Who are Remy’s “we” and “our”? I guess she’s speaking for humanity….  “Our” systems, as noted above, are funded primarily by NASA, secondarily by the European Space Agency, and coordinated by means of the International Asteroid Warning Network (IAWN). IAWN currently has 25 members, spanning Europe, Asia, and South and North America. B612 and the Asteroid Institute are not members.

More from B612’s report: “What started in 2002 as a visionary idea to develop the technology to deflect an asteroid has grown into a world-renowned organization and scientific institute with a key role in the emerging field of planetary defense.”

A key role, really? Depends on whom you ask, I suppose.

According to B612, from its founding in 2002 to 2012, it worked on the idea of deflection methods. But it did not actually develop a deflection method or a deflection mission, as far as I can tell. NASA is funding the first mission designed to demonstrate the kinetic method of asteroid deflection – the Double Asteroid Redirection Test (DART), scheduled to launch in 2021. The European Space Agency is funding the Hera mission, which will follow on the DART mission to conduct a detailed post-impact survey.

B612 co-founder Ed Lu – ex-NASA astronaut – for some years promoted, with colleagues, the gravity tractor method of asteroid deflection.  The Obama administration advanced the concept of an Asteroid Retrieval Mission, which could have involved a demonstration of the gravity tractor method of asteroid deflection. The Asteroid Retrieval Mission did not take off.

In 2012, B612 changed gears, announcing plans to build a space-based near-Earth object (NEO) survey telescope — Sentinel. B612 entered into a Space Act agreement with NASA under which NASA would provide data and expertise to the project. According to B612, “In June 2012, the B612 entered into a Non-reimbursable Space Act Agreement with NASA. This provided for future use of the Deep Space Network for transmission of data from the Sentinel spacecraft to ground stations and a select board of NASA experts to collaborate with the senior experts of the Sentinel Mission.” B612 failed to raise the funds to build the telescope. NASA terminated its Space Act agreement with B612 in 2015, because B612 failed to meet milestones established for it under the agreement (NASA met its milestones). B612 ultimately abandoned the project.

A misleading – perhaps outdated? – Wikipedia entry on the Sentinel space telescope project states: “After NASA terminated their funding agreement with the B612 Foundation in October 2015and the private fundraising goals could not be met, the Foundation eventually opted for an alternative approach using a constellation of much smaller spacecraft under study as of June 2017.NASA/JPL‘s NEOCam has been proposed instead.”

NASA did not have a funding agreement with B612. The Space Act agreement did not provide any funding.  I don’t recall that B612 worked on a constellation of smaller spacecraft. Maybe I missed it. In my humble opinion, B612’s claim that it would raise funds to build Sentinel made it difficult, for a while, for NASA to seek funding for a NASA-funded space-based NEO survey telescope – a priority identified by the small-bodies community for more than a decade. In 2019, NASA decided to move forward with a space-based NEO survey mission, based on the NEOCAM concept and technology, and now called the NEO Surveillance Mission (NEOSM).

From where I stand, it appears to be in the hands of Congress to provide adequate funding for NEOSM.

Consciousness, intelligence, and being human



Susan Schneider is a philosopher of science and the 2019-20 Baruch Blumberg NASA/Library of Congress Chair in Astrobiology. (She is an associate professor of philosophy and director of the AI, Mind, and Society Group at the University of Connecticut.) She’s studyingthe nature of self and mind, especially from the vantage point of issues in philosophy of mind, artificial intelligence, astrobiology, metaphysics and cognitive science.I’ve recently read a couple of interviews with her, which were fascinating. I’ll review them here.

In an interview with Dan Turello, staffer with the Kluge Center of the Library of Congress, she provided her definition of consciousness: “the felt quality of experience.”

“Science is still uncovering the neural basis of experience,” she said. “But even when we have the full neuroscientific picture of how the brain works, many philosophers believe there will still be a puzzle, which they call the ‘hard problem of consciousness.’ It is the following: Why do we need to be conscious? That is, the brain is an information processing system, so why does it need to feel like anything, from the inside, when we process certain information? If you think about the fact that the world is comprised of fundamental particles in certain configurations, it is bizarre to think that when these particles organize in certain, highly complex ways, (as with brains), a felt quality arises. This is astonishing.”

(Indeed, it is.)

As to creating human-like intelligence, she’s skeptical. “We don’t know enough about the brain to reverse engineer it, for one thing,” she noted. That said, “Even today’s AIs can be programmed to state they are conscious and feel emotion. So we need to devise tests that can be used at the R&D stage – before the programmed responses to such questions happens…even if AI becomes ‘superintelligent,’ surpassing us intellectually in every domain, we may still be unique in a crucial dimension. It feels like something to be us.”

In a recent interview with Mac Observer, Schneider observed that the human mind is not like a computer program. “A program is akin to an equation.” But human beings are concrete beings in space and time, and our thoughts change things. “We know so little about consciousness in humans,” she said. “The nature of consciousness is…one of the fundamental mysteries of the world, the universe…. I’m not sure we’re going to have an answer” to the question, what is consciousness, “any time soon.”

As to speculations about the development of human-like artificial intelligence, “It’s possible that human consciousness may not be replicable in silica,” she said. “We just don’t know” whether entities other than biological creatures can have consciousness, or not. And also, most of human brain activity is “non-conscious computation,” she noted, so why would artificial intelligence systems require consciousness at all?

As to the idea of “post-biological intelligence” – that is, non-corporeal intelligent life – Schneider said she’s surprised by how accepted this idea is in the astrobiology community. (I’m with her. It seems far-fetched.)

Could AI be implanted in human brains, as some people suggest? First, we don’t know if it would be possible, she said. Second, if possible, “it could be super-wonderful or super-dystopian,” depending on how the technology would be regulated. At the same time, “government control of AI technology can also be scary…. That’s why it’s so important that we have a public dialogue” about this emerging technology.

Schneider has a new book out, Artificial You – AI And The Future Of Your Mind. Check it out.

Space debris: how to clean it up?




Last week I blogged about the space debris problem. Today I’m blogging about technologies being developed and demonstrated to clean up space debris.

Several methods for the removal and de-orbiting of debris have been proposed so far, classified as either contact – for example, a robotic arm, a net, an electrodynamic tether – or contactless – for example, laser or “ion beam shepherd.”

Researchers at Tohoku University and Australian National University are developing an ion beam shepherd method of debris removal, which would use a plasma beam ejected from a satellite to impart a force to the debris, thereby decelerating it, which would result in the debris falling to a lower altitude, entering Earth’s atmosphere, and burning up.

Astroscale, a company founded in 2013 by a Japanese information-technology entrepreneur, proposes “to aid in the removal of orbital debris through the provision of End of Life and Active Debris Removal services.” A few years back, the company launched a 25-kilogram microsatellite designed to measure sub-millimeter-size debris in low-Earth orbit. The mission failed. The company plans to launch another debris-removal mission next year, designed to demonstrate capabilities for target search, target inspection, target rendezvous, and non-tumbling and tumbling docking. As far as I can tell, the company’s web site does not provide any information on who is paying for these demonstrations.

A company called Tethers Unlimited has developed three different approachesto space debris removal:

  • “Terminator Tape,” a 250 meter long conductive tape, is designed to de-orbit microsatellites (less than 50 kilograms) operating at altitudes of less than 1000 kilometers. (I am not going to explain how this thing works – go to the web site.) The company has developed several Terminator Tape modules: theCubeSat Terminator Tape (CSTT),sized for cubesats; the NanoSat Terminator Tape,sized for large nanosats to small microsats (less than 100 kg); and the MicroSat Terminator Tape, sized for microsats less than 200 kg.
  • “Terminator Tether,” which is designed to use“active electron emission technologies to greatly increase the electrodynamic forces, enabling it to deorbit most LEO [low Earth orbit] spacecraft with in a period of several months.The company says it has demonstrated this technology, but it does not provide details about the demonstration on its web site.
  • “GRASP” – Grapple, Retrieve, And Secure PayloadTechnology for Capture of Non-Cooperative Space Objects – “a deployable net technology that enables small satellites to capture and manipulate space objects such as orbital debris, small asteroids, and defunct spacecraft.”

Earlier this month, Tethers Unlimited, TriSept. Corp., Millennium Space Systems, and RocketLab USA announced that they have formed a partnership to develop a mission called Dragracer, designed to demonstrate Terminator Tape. Scheduled to be launched next year, this mission will involve placing a module on a smallsat that can unwind a stretch of electrically conductive tape that can capture a dead satellite. (The company says it already has tested Terminator Tape on several space missions, but details not available on the company’s web site.)

In June 2018, a consortium of European aerospace companies launched an experimental space-debris-removal satellite from the International Space Station. The RemoveDEBRIS satellite featured two active-debris-removal technologies developed by Airbus:  a net and a harpoon. This project was funded by the European Union. In September 2018, the RemoveDEBRIS net was demonstrated. A cubesat target representing an element of space debris was launched from the RemoveDEBRIS spacecraft and targeted by the net at a distance of several meters. The cubesat was captured, and the target/net combination subsequently deorbited and burned up upon atmospheric entry.

Also in 2018, another European space-debris-removal demonstration –DeOrbitSail – was intended to deploy a 4 x 4 meter drag sail designed to change the satellite’s orbit through drag and solar radiation pressure. DeOrbitSail was successfully put into orbit, but failed to deploy.

In February 2019, the RemoveDEBRIS harpoon was fired at a panel mounted on a boom extended from the RemoveDEBRIS spacecraft, hitting and penetrating the panel.

In May 2019, Surrey Satellite Technology Ltd’s TechDemoSat-1 successfully deployed a space-debris-removal drag sail supplied by Cranfield University. According to the European Space Agency, the UK’s Technology Strategy Board and the South East England Development Agency (SEEDA funded the design of the core elements of this mission, and Surrey Satellite Technology along with partners in UK industry and funded the payload technologies.

All well and good, yes? Efforts to mitigate the space debris problem are also under way (see last week’s post). Meanwhile, I keep wondering: who will pay for debris removal?